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首页?>?项目介绍
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项目介绍
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中国用于防污漆生产的DDT替代项目
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日期:2013-12-18

1. 我国概况:

DDT作为辅助毒料在生产防污漆中的使用始于1950s,被广泛用于各类军用和民用船只上。因其具有高效的防污性能,加之价格低廉,防污期效适合中小渔船,含DDT防污漆一直为中小渔船所青睐并使用至今。目前中国中小渔船保有量为30万艘左右,广泛分布在我国1.8万多公里的海岸线上,每年防污漆用量在10000吨左右,约一半是含DDT的防污漆,每年有250吨左右的DDT用于防污漆的生产。到2005年为止,我国在此用途上的DDT累计使用量已达到11,000吨。2000年至2005年通过对中国近海海域的环境质量监测,发现海水和海底沉积物中都有DDT及其降解产物DDD和DDE等,这些产物仍是高残留的毒物。局部海域沉积物中DDT浓度超过一类或二类标准。DDT作为农药的最大用途在中国已经被禁止20多年,DDT在陆地土壤和食品中的残留已经降至痕量级。因此,通过渔船防污漆释放的DDT是海洋环境介质中新积累的DDT的重要来源。

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DDT was first used as booster biocide in antifouling paint in 1950s. Because of its effectiveness, and low price, DDT based antifouling paint remains in use in many small and medium sized fishing boats China has 300,000 fishing vessels in its 18,000 km coastline and annual consumption stands at 10,000 MT, with DDT based antifouling paint in half. About 250 MT DDT is used to date. As of 2005, a cumulative total of 11,000 MT of DDT had been used for this purpose. Coastal environmental quality monitoring from year 2000 to 2005 found residues of DDT and its degradation derivatives DDD and DDE, which are also persistent and toxic, in sea water and sediments. The concentration of DDT in the sediments in some areas exceeded Class I or II of marine environment quality Standards limit. Use of DDT as a pesticide in agriculture was banned 20 years ago. DDT residues on land, soil, and food have fallen down to trace levels. Therefore, release of DDT from antifouling paint on fishing boats and ships can be considered a new and the main source of DDT found in marine environment.

2. 公约要求:

关于持久性有机污染物(POPs)的斯德哥尔摩公约》(简称公约)于2004年11月11日对中国正式生效。滴滴涕(DDT)被公约列为首批12种受控物质之一,且公约对含DDT防污漆不予以豁免,要求各缔约方必须立即采取措施淘汰DDT用作船舶防污漆的添加剂,以减少或消除DDT从船舶防污漆中释放至海洋、河流或湖泊,避免其在环境介质迁移的过程中,通过食物链对人体健康和生态环境构成威胁。

The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants entered into effect on November 11, 2004. DDT became one of the first controlled 12 POPs in the Convention. DDT-based Anti-fouling paint is not in the list of specific exemption, it must be eliminated in production and use according to the provision of the Convention, in order to reduce and finally eliminate DDT release from antifouling-paint and to avoid threat to human health and environment through food cycle when DDT migrate via environmental intermediate.

3. 项目概要:

The implementation timeframe is 4 years. In the first year, technically and economically feasible technologies/alternatives will be selected through open bidding and ranking process for on-ship coating experiment,capacity will be developed and policies providing enabling environment will be revised or established. In the second and third years, manufacturing enterprises that possess strong technical capacity, competent management experience and sound business development plans will be selected, manufacturing sites will be prepared and equipment installed, production and promotion of the substitutes/alternatives in the market will be initiated and upscaled. In the fourth year, results and experience will be summarized and compiled into reports, while at the same time the production and sales of the alternatives will be further consolidated. The total budget is USD22.955million, among which GEF grant is USD10.705million.

本项目执行期为4年。第1年主要是通过资格审查和公开竞标,筛选出技术和经济可行的替代技术/产品进行实船涂装试验,并进行能力建设和政策软环境建设;第2、3年主要是公开竞标筛选具有良好技术能力、管理经验和商业计划的生产企业;生产场地准备与设备安装,启动并延续替代品的生产和销售。第4年继续促进替代品的生产和销售,同时总结成果和经验,并编入总结报告。项目总经费为2295.5万美元,其中GEF赠款为1070.5万美元。

4. 项目目标

总体目标

保护我国乃至全球的人体健康和生态环境免受DDT船舶防污漆的威胁和破坏;同时完成我国履约义务。

具体目标

淘汰DDT作为船舶防污漆的添加剂;推广环境友好、高效且经济可行的替代品/技术;加强我国履约能力;提高公众环境意识。

Objectives:

Overall objective: The goal of this project is to protect human health, environment from DDT-based Anti-fouling paint, and implement the Convention obligations of China.

Specific objective: The project objective is to substitute DDT based antifouling paint and promote, apply technically feasible, economically viable, and environmentally friendly alternatives. At the same time, the project will enhance the Convention implementation capacity and improve public awareness.

5. 项目活动:

本项目将会在以下5个方面开展活动:

成立项目管理机构,并进行操作能力建设;

建立管理信息系统和项目网站;

建立或修改法规、标准和行动计划,并开展相应的能力建设,为淘汰DDT防污漆和促进替代品的使用创造一个政策能动环境;

通过技术支持、政策引导、市场调节、意识提升和宣传教育等多种手段促进替代品取代DDT防污漆;

开展宣传教育活动,提高主要利益相关者和公众的环境意识,提高受众对DDT防污漆危害以及替代品效益的认识和替代品受益;

有效的监测和评价项目执行和项目成果.

Activities:

the project activities and outcomes are described below:

Establish project management institutions and build their operational capacity;

Establish an MIS and website for the project;

Establish or revise regulations, standards, and action plan supported by capacity building to create an enabling policy environment for phase out of DDT based antifouling paint and promotion of sustainable alternatives;

Adopt multiple means of technological support, policy induction, market regulation, and awareness raising and education to promote the conversion from DDT based antifouling paints to alternatives;

Conduct environmental education to promote environmental awareness of key stakeholders and the public, improve their understanding of harm of DDT/TBT based antifouling paints and the benefits of alternatives;

Effective monitoring and evaluation on project implementation and achieved results.

6. 项目意义:

本项目的实施将直接消除由防污漆生产、销售、使用和处置释放入环境的DDT,特别是由于防污底漆的缓慢释放而进入到海洋中的DDT。消除DDT的益处包括:

使得传播到全球环境各个角落的DDT总量和对整个人类和生物圈的危害减少;

改善海洋环境质量、海洋生态系统和从事与DDT和DDT防污漆的生产、流通、使用和处置相关行业的人群的健康;

减少由于水产品中DDT含量过高而造成的经济损失,以及由于DDT危害而导致的医疗费用;

通过出口环境友好、高效及经济可行的防污漆产品到其他国家,提高防污漆行业的经济收益。

Benefits:

The implementation of this project will eliminate the release of DDT into environment through production, distribution, use, and disposal of DDT based antifouling paint, particularly the release of DDT into sea through leaching of antifouling agents coated on the bilge. The benefits will include:

The hazard to global ecosystem, workers and fishermen and human health through consumption of DDT bioaccumulated in aquatic products will be reduced.

The implementation of the project will greatly reduce the above mentioned risks and alleviate potentially significant economic losses.

The will give rise to a high cost-benefit ratio for project.

7. 执行机构

国际执行机构:联合国开发计划署

国内执行机构:环境保护部

Implementing Agency

International Implementing Agency: UNDP( United Nations Development Programme)

National Implementing Agency: MEP(Ministry of Environmental Protection )

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